Laws of the Game: ALL changes in football rules

Football and its Laws of the Game change every year – not just since the founding of The IFAB in 1886, but even before. The changes in the football rules condition the game (as with the offside rule in 1866 and 1925) or the game conditions a change in the Laws of the Game (as with the backpass rule in 1992).

Are you looking for a complete overview of all football rule changes? Then you’ve come to the right place.

For the benefit of clarity, the sections are listed to expand and according to the current sorting of the rules. You can find the most recent Laws of the Game on TheIFAB.com or in their app “Laws of the Game”.

Law 1: The Field of Play

Field dimensions

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1858 (Harrow Football) length: 150 yd, width: 100 yd (“in House matches”)
1863 (Cambridge University) l: 150 yd, w: 100 yd.
1863 (Shrewsbury School) l: 150 yd, w: 120 yd.
1863 (FA) l: 200 yd, w: 100 yd.
1867 (Sheffield FA) l: 200 yd, w: 100 yd.
1875 (FA) l: 100-200 yd, w: 50-100 yd (Royal Engineers).
1897 (IFAB) l: 100-130 yd, w: 50-100 yd. International matches: l: 110-120 yd, w: 70-80 yd.
1997 (IFAB) The field must be rectangular and the touch line is the longer side. Additional information in the metric system. Determination of the height and shape of the flag posts.
2008 (IFAB) Addition where flag posts must be placed. International matches: l: 100-120 yd, w: 50-100 yd. International A matches: l: 115 yd, w: 75 yd.

Field surface

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
2004 (IFAB) It is no longer necessary to play on grass, artificial surfaces are now also permitted if they meet the requirements (FIFA).
2008 (IFAB) The colour of artificial surfaces must be green. The requirements for artificial surfaces are defined in FIFA Quality Concept for Artificial Turf or the International Artificial Turf Standard.
2011 (IFAB) Other lines on artificial surface are allowed if they differ clearly from the lines of the field of play (FIFA).
2016 (IFAB It is added that hybrid systems of natural and artificial surfaces are also allowed if competition rules allow it.

Field markings

(With goal area, penalty area, penalty mark/line, flag posts, corner arc, halfway line)

The markings vary between 1891 and 1902, sometimes clearly from each other and do not comply with international laws. This chronology is based exclusively on international laws, the Laws of the Game.

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1857 (Cambridge University) Four flags mark the corner of the field.
1858 (Sheffield FA) Four flags mark the corner of the field.
1862 (Uppingham School) Four flags mark the corner of the field.
1863 (FA) Four flags mark the corner of the field.
1883 (IFAB) Additional continuous lines of the goals and touch line. In practice it was mostly a solution of chalk mud or a V-shaped furrow.
1891 (IFAB) Goal area: A line six yd from the goal-posts.

Halfway line & midpoint: The centre of the field of play is marked by a point. A circle of 10 yd is drawn around the point, making the distance apparent at kick-off.

1896 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: The four flags at the corners of the field of play are now mandatory, as is their minimum height (FA).
1897 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: Touch lines should be rectangular to the goal lines.
Goal area: Instead of a line, the goal areas are semicircles of 6 yd from each goal post.
1901 (IFAB) Penalty line: A line 12 yd parallel to the goal-line.
Penalty area: The penalty area is clarified only by a point 18 yd from the goal-line.
1902 (IFAB) Goal area: Instead of semi-circles, the goal area is defined as a rectangle of 6 yd side length centered in front of each goal (FA).
Penalty mark: A mark 12 yd in front of the centre of each goal (FA).
Penalty area: Instead of a mark, the penalty area is now marked by a rectangle of 18 yd in the middle of each goal (FA).
Halfway line & midpoint: In addition, a line from touch line to touch line divides the field into two equally sized halves (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: The lines must be distinctive, no V shaped rut.
Penalty mark: Additionally, a semicircle of 10 yd around the penalty mark extending out of the penalty area.
Corner area: Within each corner of the field is drawn a quarter circle of 1 yd radius.
1939 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: The lines must not be wider than 5 inches.(FA).
1997 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: The lines are part of the areas of which they are boundaries.
markings: Supplement of metric dimensions.
2016 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: It is added that the lines must be continuous and not dangerous. Also artificial playing surface material may be used for the field markings on natural field if it is not dangerous. Furthermore, only the lines indicated in law 1 are to be marked on the field of play..
2019 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: It is added that on artificial surfaces other lines are permitted provided they are a different colour and clearly distinguishable from the football lines..

Goals and GLT

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1847 and following (Eton Field Game) width: 11 ft, height marked by length of posts (= 7 ft).
1858 (Harrow Football) w: 12 ft, no height limitation.
1862 (Sheffield FC) w: 12 ft, h: 9 ft. Height marked by band.
1863 (Cambridge University) w: 15 ft, no height limitation.
1863 (FA) w: 8 yd, no height limitation.
1866 (FA) w: 8 yd, h: 8 ft. Height marked by band.
1868 (Sheffield FA) w: 8 yd, h: 8 ft. Height marked by band.
1875 (FA) w: 8 yd, h: 8 ft. Height marked by band (since 1866) or crossbar (Queen’s Park).
1883 (IFAB) w: 8 yd, h: 8 ft. Height marking only by crossbar.
1894 (IFAB) Goalposts must have a diameter of 5 ins (FA).
1895 (IFAB) Goalnets must be used in international matches (FA).
1896 (IFAB) Goal nets must be attached to the goal line and the goal post equidistant from the corner flags must be located. Its the crossbar is displaced the referee decides if a goal is obtained (FA, FAW).
1938 (IFAB, German edition) Goal nets should not be attached to the goal line, but must be behind it.
1939 (IFAB) The goal-posts and crossbar both in width and depth are not greater than 5 inches. (FA).
1966 (IFAB) The goal-posts and crossbar both in width and depth are not less than 4 inches (FIFA).
1967 (IFAB) The goal-posts and the crossbar must have the same width (IFAB).
1994 (IFAB, German edition) Goalnets must be anchored securely to the ground (FA).
2008 (IFAB) Determination of the material and the form of the goal-posts.
2016 (IFAB) Introduction of the GLT in the LoG and definition of its requirements and specifications.
Where GLT is used, modifications to the goal frame may be permitted in accordance with the specifications stipulated in the FIFA Quality Programme for GLT and with the Laws of the Game. The use of GLT must be stipulated in the competition rules.
GLT applies solely to the goal line and is only used to determine whether a goal has been scored.
The indication of whether a goal has been scored must be immediate and automatically confirmed within one second by the GLT system only to the match officials (via the referee’s watch, by vibration and visual signal).
Reintroduction of the requirement for the event of displaced crossbars: The play is stopped until it has been repaired or replaced in position. If it can not be repaired the match must be abandoned. A rope or any flexible or dangerous material may not replace the crossbar. Play is restarted with a dropped ball.
2019 (IFAB) The Testing Manual will be replaced by the FIFA Quality Programme for GLT.

Technical Area (Coaching Area)

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1994 (IFAB) The Technical Zone will be introduced as an area up to 1 yd on the touch lines where team officials may give tactical instructions to their team (SFA).
1995 (IFAB) The Technical Zone must be marked (SFA).
1997 (IFAB) The coach may give instructions to the team, but must remain within the Technical Zone. Irrespective of this, the coach must behave in a respectful manner.
2000 (IFAB) There shall be no form of advertising in the Technical Zone, up to 1 yd on the sidelines or outside the field on the ground. Supplement: After the coach has given tactical instructions, he has to leave the Technical Area again and go to his seat.
2001 (IFAB) The regulations do not only apply to the coach, but also to all team officials.
2004 (IFAB) Technical Area must meet the requirements.
2016 (IFAB) Team officials take an active part in the game and can also risk penalty kicks if they obtain a goal.

Commercial advertising, logos and emblems on the field of play

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1995 (IFAB) Any kind of publicity is forbidden, also any attachment of cameras, microphones, etc. to the field of play equipment.
1997 (IFAB) Commercial advertising on the field of play is forbidden, also any attachment of cameras, microphones, etc. to the field of play equipment.
2000 (IFAB) Reproduction of logos is forbidden in the field of play and field equipment.
2016 (IFAB) It is added the advertising is not permitted on the goals, nets, flagposts or their flags. In addition, upright advertising must be at least the same distance from the goal line as the depth of the goal net and 1 m (1 yd) away from the goal net. Also, the reproduction, whether real or virtual, of representative logos or emblems of FIFA, confederation, national football associations, competitions, clubs or other bodies is forbidden on the field of play, the goal nets and the areas they enclose, the goals, and the flagposts during playing time are not permitted. All restrictions refer to the time between the time the teams enter the field of play until they have left it at half-time and from the time the teams enter the field of play until they have left it at half-time and from the time the teams re-enter the field of play until the end of the match.
2018 (IFAB) It is added that also 1 m (1 yd) within the RRA no advertising is allowed.
2019 (IFAB) Change: On the flags of the flagposts, logos and emblems are permitted.

VOR and RRA

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
2015 (IFAB) Introduction of the video operation room (VOR) and at least one referee review area (RRA).
Video Operation Room (VOR): The VOR is where the video assistant referee (VAR), assistant (AVAR) and replay operator (RO) work; it may be in/close to the stadium or at a more distant location. Only authorised persons are permitted to enter the VOR or communicate with VAR, AVAR and RO during the match. A player, substitute or substituted player who enters the VOR will be sent off; a team official who enters the VOR will be dismissed from the technical area.
Referee review area (RRA): In matches using VARs there must be at least on RRA where the referee undertakes an ‘on-field review’ (OFR). The RRA must be in a visible location outside the field of play and clearly marked. A player, substitute or substituted player who enters the RRA will be cautioned; a team official who enters the RRA will be publicly given an official warning (or cautioned where YCs are used for the team officials).
2018 (IFAB) If team officials enter the VOR they will not be warned anymore, but sent off.

Law 2: The Ball

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1883 (IFAB) The circumference had to be 27-28 ins before the beginning of the game.
1880s (IFAB) The home club provides the ball. The ball must be returned to the club after the match.
1889 (IFAB) The weight must be 13-15 oz at the beginning of the game.
1937 (IFAB) Weight increase to 14-16 ounces.
1905 (IFAB) The ball must not have anything on it that can injure a player (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Supplement that the weight refers to the start of the game. Supplement that the shape of the ball is spherical. If the ball becomes defective, it’s replaced. The game continues with a dropped ball at the point where the ball becomes deflective.
1954 (IFAB) Addition that the ball may only be exchanged after the referee’s approval (FAW).
1965 (IFAB) Supplement that other, not further named materials are allowed if they are approved (IFAB).
1967 (IFAB) The pressure of the ball must correspond to the air pressure at sea-level (= 15 lb./sq. or 1 kg/cm^2) (IFAB).
1972 (IFAB) Supplement the specification of the atmospheric pressure in atmosphere and at sea level (FIFA).
1975 (IFAB) Decrease of the pressure: The pressure of the ball must be 9.0 – 10.5 lb./sq. on the sea-level = 0.6-0,7 atmosphere(FIFA).
1983 (IFAB) The maximum value of the range of allowed pressure is increased: The pressure of the ball must correspond to 0.6-1.1atmosphere at sea-level (FIFA).
1985 (IFAB) It is added that – when play was stopped and the ball was in the goal area – it is dropped on that part of the goal area line which runs parallel to the goal-line, at the point nearest to where the ball was when play (IFA).
1996 (IFAB) Circumference: The Anglo-American measurements are replaced by the measurements in the metric system: 68,0-70,0 cm (FIFA).

Weight: Change the weight of ounces in grams: 397-450 g (FIFA).

Material: The used material – apart from leather – must no longer be approved, but suitable (FIFA).

1997 (IFAB) Circumference: The Anglo-American measures are supplemented, the metric measures remain.

Exchange of the ball: This passage war inserted again: If a ball become detective, the match is stopped, restarted by a dropped ball from the place the ball becomes deflective.

Commercial ads on the ball: No kind of commercial advertising on the ball is allowed in matches of FIFA, confederations and national associations. Infringements are penalised by the host of the competition.

2008 (IFAB) Exchange of the ball: Supplement (as already 1985-1996): If the ball becomes defective when it is in the goal area, the match is restarted by a dropped ball of that part of the goal area line which runs parallel to the goal-line, at the point nearest to where the ball was when play was stopped.

Commercial ads on the ball: Prohibition only applies to official competitions.

2011 (IFAB) Supplement that if the ball become defective during the performing of a penalty kick (ball is in play), the penalty kick is retaken if the ball has not already touched a player, goal-post or crossbar (FIFA)..
2016 (IFAB Exchange of the ball: Even if the ball becomes kick defective at a goal, it will be repeated. Additional balls can be stored around the field and used under the referee’s control.

Commercial ads on the ball: Emphasis on the prohibition of advertising on the field of game, except for the logo/emblem of the competition, the competition organiser and the authorised manufacturer’s trademark. The competition regulations may restrict the size and number of such markings.

Law 3: The Number of Players

Number of Players

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
Diverse reports about football matches before 1870 There wasn’t a written regulation how many players of a team had to participate in a game at the same time and how many were allowed to do so. There were the variants with eight players and with eleven players or only the requirement that there must be an equal number of players on both sides. At least in the FA, however, the variant with eleven players seems to have been usual.
1849, Surrey FC Twenty-two players (each team)
1857 (Sheffield FC) No information.
1897 (IFAB) Eleven players.
1923 (IFAB) There may also be less than 11 players on one side, but no more than 11 players (FA).
1924 (IFAB) The clause on removing injured players refers only to seriously injured players. Only then should the referee interrupt the game. If, according to the opinion of the referee, there is a slight injury, he should not interrupt the game (SFA).
1938 (IFAB) One of the 11 players on one side must be the goalkeeper. A player who crosses the touch line is no longer on the playing field.
1973 (IFAB) In case of infringement the player will be cautioned. If the game has to be stopped, it will be continued by an IDFK (SFA).
1978 (IFAB) The IDFK is performed by a player of the opposing team, from the place where the ball was, when play was stopped. If the free-kick is awarded to a side within its own goal area it may be taken from any point within the half of the goal area in which the ball was when play was stopped (FA).
1981 (IFAB) For other infringements of the law than infringements of substituted player another clause is added: In case of other infringements the game is stopped, the player is cautioned and the game restarted by an IDFK (as in 1973-1980) (FIFA).
1985 (IFAB) It is added that – when play was stopped and the ball was in the goal area – it is dropped on that part of the goal area line which runs parallel to the goal-line, at the point nearest to where the ball was when play (IFA).
1986 (IFAB) Supplement that when taking a free kick after an infringement, the general conditions for free kicks from Law 13 apply (FA).
1988 (IFAB) Supplement: If competition rules require substitute players to be reported to the referee before the start of play, but this does not happen, these players may not be used (FA).
1995 (IFAB) Deletion of Supplement: If competition rules require substitute players to be reported to the referee before the start of play, but this does not happen, these players may not be fielded (IFAB).
1997 (IFAB) The minimum number of players is set at 7 per team at the beginning of the game. If a player is sent off before the start of play, he may be replaced by a player registered with the referee. If the player is sent off during the match, he may not be replaced by a substitute player. Supplement that a yellow card must be shown for a caution.
2005 (IFAB) For infringements of substitute players the game will be restarted by an IDFK, no longer by a dropped ball.
2011 (IFAB) If a change is made after the players and substitute players have been reported to the referee, the change must be reported to the referee before the match begins (FIFA).

Number of substitutions

More about the history of substitutions in football on Football-History.info:

The History of Substitutions in Football, Part 1 ([dr;tl])

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1914 (IFAB) In non-competition matches, an injured player is to be removed from the field and treated beyond the touch line (SFA).
1923 (IFAB) In non-competition matches, a replacement of an injured player may be made with the prior agreement of both sides (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Not only the two teams must agree to allow substitutions of an injured player, but also the National Associations and International Associations. Definition of “international match”: A match in which one of the four British Associations is playing.
1967 (IFAB) Up to two players per team are allowed to be substituted independent of an injury in matches which are not played under the rules of a competition or if the international or national association(s) have allowed substitution. The referee must be informed of the names of the substitutes before the start of the game (IFAB).
1972 (IFAB) In matches which are not played under the rules of a competition, the teams agree on the maximum number of substitutions, which may not exceed 5. The referee must be informed about the agreement otherwise not more than two substitutions are allowed (IFAB).
1976 (IFAB) Specification of the term “competition matches”. These are games under the auspices of FIFA, Confederation or national associations (IFAB).
1986 (IFAB) The substitutes must be chosen from a maximum of 5 announced possible substitutes (SFA).
1988 (IFAB) Supplement that the number of the nominated substitute player is set to five and their names must be announced to the referee (FA).
1994 (IFAB) Increasing the number of substitutions from two to three, with the additional third substitution relating only to the goalkeeper (IFAB).
1995 (IFAB) In official competitions under the jurisdiction of FIFA, Confederations or National Associations, the rules of the competition state the number of nominated substitutes and allowed substitutes. In other games the number of allowed substitutions is increased from two to three (IFAB).
1996 (IFAB) Increasing the number of nominated substitute player from three to seven (IFAB).
1997 (IFAB) Increasing the number of nominated substitute player from three to seven. Supplement that not nominated substitutes may not take part in the match.
2000 (IFAB) In friendly matches, no greater number of substitutions is allowed than in competition games (SFA).
2004 (IFAB) In friendly matches, up to six substitutions are allowed (IFAB).
2005 (IFAB) Supplement: In other matches a larger number is allowed, but needs mutual agreement before the match. Otherwise only up to six substitutions are allowed (SFA).
2008 (IFAB) Supplement of the substitution procedure: The referee is informed that a substitution is impending. If the match is stopped, the referee gives the signal. The substitute enters the field after the player has left it, both on the centre line. At this moment the substitute player become a player, the player becomes a substituted player and the substitution is completed.
2015 (IFAB) Addition: Return substitutions are allowed, but only in the lowest levels of football, subject to the agreement of the member association concerned (FA, SFA).
2016 (IFAB) The text adds that three to twelve substitutes can be nominated. In addition, the requirements for sending-off of players and substitutes are specified. Introduction of the definition of outside agents and how to act when they intervene in the game.
2018 (IFAB) It is changed in the text that a fourth substitution is possible if the match goes into extra time. In addition, in national “A” team matches up to twelve substitutes may be nominated.
2019 (IFAB) Substituted players must leave the field at the nearest point.
2022 (IFAB) The number of substitutions is permanently increased to five during regular playing time. Since summer 2020, this number was already in effect as a temporary exemption due to the Covid 19 pandemic. The additional substitutions in overtime will remain.

Law 4: The Player’s Equipment

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1st half in 19th century The early rules and regulations of English public schools and universities do not give any information about players’ equipment except for the colour of their clothing. However, coloured drawings of football matches from the half century of the 19th century show that jerseys, overknee length shorts and boots were already used as clothing. If the jersey and shorts were not uniform or similar in colour, the teams wore different caps or one team wore a (non-uniform) cap, the other has none. So spectators could recognize the players, the colour of their caps was printed in newspaper reports in addition to the names of the players. [1]Cf. Brown, Paul: Please do not strain the ropes – a football programme from 1875. In: Goalpost. URL: http://www.goalpostbooks.co.uk/please-do-not-strain-the-ropes/.
1858 (Sheffield FC) Colours: Sheffield FC mainly played in the first years matches within the club. Different coloured caps were prescribed to distinguish the teams (red or blue). With the foundation of the Sheffield FA this law was deleted.
1863 (FA) Footwear: The cut and material of the boots were not fixed, but against possible injuries protecting nails, iron plates and gutta-percha [2]A rubber-like fabric. were prohibited (gutta-percha was deleted in 1904). Everything had to be intruded in such a way that it was on the same level as the boot (from 1863, 1872 once again with emphasis on suggestion of Great Marlow FC included in the code).
1867 (Sheffield FA) Colours: The older club has the privilege to choose the jersey color.
1881 (FA) Shin guards: Introduction of shin guards (Wanderers FC). These should not madewith metal in order not to increase the risk of injury.
1887 (IFAB) Footwear: Addition that bars are only allowed in the soles of the shoes (FA).
1888 (IFAB) Footwear: Bars measure at least one and a half inches in length and and a half inches in width. Studs are round with a diameter of at least half an inch and never are conceal or pointed. Bars or studs in the soles of the shoes must not project more than 0.5 inch. Their fastenings must be driven in flush with the leather.
1896 (IFAB) Footwear: Change that not protruding iron parts, but protruding metal parts are forbidden (FA).
1897 (IFAB) Footwear: Change that Guttapercha is forbidden not only on the soles, but on the whole shoes.
1898 (IFAB) Footwear: Alteration that bar shall be transvers (and still flat) (FA). Change: The referee checks the shoes before the match [so that no offence can occur] (FA).
1910 (IFAB) Footwear: Studs no longer need to be concelaed, but must not be conical. Addition: The referee may also check the shoes during the match and if a player’s shoes do not meet the requirements, he may not play. (SFA)
1929 (IFAB) Footwear: It is added so that a player who has had to change his shoes due to infringement must first ask the referee for permission to enter the field of play.
1933 (IFAB) Footwear: In addition, the player may not enter the field of play until the ball has ceased to be in play.
1937 (IFAB) Footwear: The requirements for studs have been deleted. It is added that combined studs and bars may be worn provided the bar is affixed transversely and extends the full width of the boot and the whole conforms to the general requirements of this rule. The bar, in conjunction with the stud, must be rounded at the corners and must be free of metal plates of any kind (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Footwear: New specification that the player must not wear anything that can be dangerous for other players. Bars and studs can now be made of leather or rubber. Metal plates may also not be worn if they are covered with leather or rubber.
In general: List of the usual equipment of a football player: 1 jersey or shirt, short trousers, stockings, boots. Additionally, the goalkeepers wear colours which distinguish him from the other players.
Sanctions: If a player enters the field without permission, he will be cautioned. The match is restarted with an IDFK at the place where the ball was when the referee stopped the match.
1939 (IFAB) Footwear: It is deleted that all fastenings of bars and studs must be driven in flush of the leather or rubber (FA).
1951 (IFAB) Footwear: Bars and studs may project three quarters of an inch instead of half an inch. Addition that small metal seating for the screw type of studs may be worn (but still no other metal).
1955 (IFAB) Footwear: Bars and studs can now also be made of aluminium, plastic or other similar material. If they are made of rubber, they are now only made of soft rubber. Bars must now have rounded corners (FA).
1959 (IFAB) Footwear: Deletion that used nails shall be driven in flush with the surface (FA).
1961 (IFAB) Footwear: Additional, bars and studs must be solid (FIFA).
1963 (IFAB) Footwear: Change that studs must not project less than half an inch, but not less than a quarter of an inch.
1973 (IFAB) In general: Reintroducing that the goalkeeper wear colours which distinguish him from the other players and additionally the referee (FA).
1975 (IFAB) Footwear: Additionalley, additional supporting material to stabilise studs of soft materials and rigdes which shall not project more than 5 mm from the sole and moulded to strengthen it, shall be permitted provided that they are in no way dangerous to other players (FIFA).
1978 (IFAB) Sanctions: Addition: When the offence is committed by a player in his opponents’ goal area, in which case, the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred (FA).
1987 (IFAB) Sanctions: Supplement that when taking a free kick after an infringement, the general conditions for free kicks from Law 13 apply (FA).
1990 (IFAB) Dangerous equipment: Deletion of all requirements of footwear except that it must not be dangerous to other players (FIFA).
In general: Reintroducing the list of the usual equipment of a football player: 1 shirt or jersey, shorts, stocking, footwear and additional to the requirement of 1938-1973 shinguards (FIFA).
Shin guards: Shinguards, which must be covered entirely by the stockings, shall be made of a suitable material (rubber, plastic, polyurethane or similar substance) and shall afford a reasonable degree of protection (FIFA). Now, shin guards are compulsory.
1992 (IFAB) Dangerous equipment: Correction that, in the event of an offence against the requirements of the shoes, the player will not be sent-off from the field of play for the duration of the match, but will only be required to leave the feld of play until he wears shoes that meet the requirements (FA).
1997 (IFAB) In general: Supplement that thermal undershorts must be of the same main colour as the shorts and that goalkeeper must wear colour which distinguish him from the other players (as 1938-1973), the referee and the assistant referees.
Sanctions: Supplement that also a yellow card is shown for the offence which is cautioned.
2002 (IFAB) Commercial ads: Advertising is permitted: on the player’s jersey. Jerseys must have sleeves.
Advertising is not permitted neither on the player’s shorts, stockings and footwear nor on undershirts which are revealed. A player removing his jersey to reveal slogans or advertising will be sanctioned by the competition organiser.
2003 (IFAB) Commercial ads: Removal that advertising on the player’s jersey is permitted.
2006 (IFAB) In general: Supplement that undergarments must be of the same main colour as the sleeve of the jersey or shirt. Supplement that undergarments must be of the same main colour as the sleeve of the jersey or shirt. (FIFA)
2007 (IFAB) Commercial ads: Addition: Like advertising, political, religious or personal statements is prohibited.
2008 (IFAB) Dangerous equipment: Addition that also jewellery can be dangerous to other player and must not be worn.
In general: Supplement that the requirement should not be, but must be and that both teams colours must distinguish them from each other and the referee and assistant referees.
Shin guards: Additionally, also similar material instead of rubber and plastic is allowed.
2011 (IFAB) Supplement that tights must be of the same main colour as the shourts (FIFA).
2014 (IFAB) Also pictures are forbidden on the basic equipment or undergarment (FA).
2016 (IFAB) Dangerous equipment: In addition, some examples are given of what belongs to jewellery and it is forbidden to cover it only with tape. It has to be removed and if someone refuses it will be cautioned
Commercial ads: Equipment must not have any political, religious or personal slogans, statements or images. Players must not reveal undergarments that show political, religious, personal slogans, statements or images, or advertising other than the manudacturer#s logo. For any offence the player and/or the team will be sanctioned by the competition organiser, national football association or by FIFA.
Other equipment: Introduction of a new passage concerning other equipments, more specifically, for head protecting and the requirements of head covers.
EPTS: Allowance of electronic communication and EPTS.
2017 (IFAB) EPTS: EPTS is allowed in matches played in an official competition organised under the auspices of FIFA, confederation or national football associations if it bear the IMS mark.
2018 (IFAB) Sanctions: It is added that if a player enters the field without permission and interfere with play, a direct kick is awarded to the opponent.
EPTS: Electronic communication system are allowed for team officials for tactical/coaching reasons but only small, mobile, hand-held equipment (e.g. microphone, headphone, ear-piece, mobilephone/smartphone, smartwatch, tablet, laptop) may be used. A team official who uses unauthorised equipment or who behaves in an inappropriate manner as a result of the use of electronic or communication equipment will be dismisse from the technical area.
It is added that a professional standard was developed by FIFA and approved by The IFAB in order to support the competition organisers with the approval process of reliable and accurate electronic performance and tracking systems; it will be implemented on 1st June 2019.
Commercial ads: It is added who this provision applies to (players, substitutes and substituted players) and what is permitted and what is prohibited:
– permitted: player’s number, name, team crest/logo, initiative slogans/emblems promoting the game of football, respect and integrity as well as any advertising permitted by competition rules or national FA, confederation or FIFA regulations, facts of a match (teams, date, competition/event, venue), permitted slogans, statements or images should be confined to the shirt front and/or armband. Also, in some cases, the slogan, statement or image might only appear on the captain’s armband.
– prohibited: slogans, statements or images using offensive, provoking, derisory, insulting or abusive language and/or gestures, any person(s), living or dead (unless part of the official competition name), any local, regional, national or international political party/organisation/group, etc., any local, regional or national government or any of its departments, offices or functions, any organisation which is discriminatory, any organisation whose aims/actions are likely to offend a notable number of people, any specific political act/event.
Additional, when commemorating a significant national or international event, the sensibilities of the opposing team (including its supporters) and the general public should be carefully considered.
Competition rules may contain further restrictions/limitations, particularly in relation to the size, number and position of permitted slogans, statements and images. It is recommended that disputes relating to slogans, statements or images be resolved prior to a match/competition taking place.
2019 (IFAB) It is changed that all undergarment must have the exact colour of the shirt sleeve, not only the main colour.

Law 5: The Referee

Umpires already existed in the first half of the 19th century at the football match of private schools. For Eton it is said that there was a mediating, judicially instance (1845) [3]Cf. Manganese, J. A.: Prologue. In: J. A. Manganese (Hg): Sport in Europe. Politics, Class, Gender. Preston 1999. p. iv-viii, here p. vii., which sat outside the playing field and act on invocation of the captains (a kind of player-trainer-manager) after they could not agree.

The association game at the end of the 19th century was neither fairer nor more unfair than it is today, so a referee was necessary. For already in this century there were numerous attempts to deceive the umpires and referee, be it by concealed fouls, constant “hand!” and “offside!” calls and other actions that have not changed at all.

“You know very well that that last shot was not a goal,” said an unknown referee to a player at the end of the 19th century. The player replied: “Of course I do, but I didn’t know that you did, and nothing is lost by appealing.”[4]Brown, Paul: How referees are tricked – a Victorian football football[!] ref reveals all. In: Goalpost. URL: www.goalpost.co.uk/how-referees-are-tricked (Last accessed: 30.06.2017. On 22th … Continue reading

 

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1847 and following (Eton Field Game) Each team chose their umpire, who had to adjudicate on an appeal of his team.
1858 (Harrow Football) Each team chose their umpire, who then had to adjudicate on an appeal of his team.
1871 (Sheffield FA) Introduction of umpires. Each team chose their umpire, who then had to adjudicate on an appeal of his team. Tasks: Check the boots of the players.
1874 (FA) Introduction of umpires. Each team chose their umpire, who then had to adjudicate on an appeal of his team. Tasks: Check the boots of the players.
1875 (Sheffield FA) For better signaling the umpires used flags. They still react only on invocation.
1877 (FA) Other tasks of the umpires: signifying handgame, ungentlemanly conduct and violation of the offside law. They also signal when the ball get into touch or behind the goal (Clydesdale FC).
1878 (FA) The umpires use a whistle for better signaling, but they still react only on an appeal .
1881 (FA) The umpires is supplemented by a referee who can react to the umpires’ call. He is selected by mutual agreement between the participating teams. Added tasks: timekeeping, booking or dismissal (Birmingham FA).
1882 (FA) The referee has the power to abandon the game if spectators interrupt with the game (Upton Park FC, Old Etonians).
1888 (IFAB) Referee’s power: Additionally, he can stop the game when he may deem it necessary in the event of spectators interfering with the game.
1889 (IFAB) Referee’s duty: Additionally, he can award a free kick without appeal because of dangerous play, stop the game by reason of darkness, keep a record of the game, act as timekeeper and shall caution players for ungentlemanly conduct. If a player shows repeal repeated ungentlemanly conduct, the referee can send him of the field of play and transmit his name to the Council of their (National) Associations and whom shall be solely vested the right of accepting an apology. Also, in case of abandoning a game or any undue interference by an umpire, he shall report the situation to the Associations, who shall have full power to deal with the matter.
1891 (IFAB) Introduction of the referee as team official on the field of play. His additional duties: to enforce the rules, to decide all disputed points and to send a player off in the case of violent conduct, without any previous caution (FA).
1893 (IFAB) The decision of the referee is final (FA).
1895 (IFAB) Emphasis that the referee has “full power” (FA). Only the national federation in whose competition an offence is suitable has the right to determine a punishment. The referee therefore immediately reports the offence to the National Association (FA).
1896 (IFAB) Re-emphasise that the referee has “full power”.
1897 (IFAB) It is specified that the referee’s decision regarding the match is final.
1898 (IFAB) Additional duty: The referee may extend the playing time by the wasted time (FA).
1907 (IFAB) Clarification: A player is sent off if he commits another offence. It does not have to be exactly the same as before.
1909 (IFAB) Clarification: Time lost due to an injury is also added to the playing time.
1934 (IFAB) Addition: If the game was stopped because of ungentlemanly conduct, the game is restarted with an IDFK (“free kick”).
1938 (IFAB) The referee may also apply the laws when the ball is not in play (FAW). Addition: The referee’s jurisdiction begins with his kick-off signal and when the ball is out of play, he may still impose disciplinary sanctions. Reports must be received by the association within two days (without Sundays). He decides whether the ball meets the requirements of Law 2.
1973 (IFAB) Reasons for immediate sending-off are: violent conduct, serious foul play, use of foul or abusive language (FA).
1992 (IFAB) Supplement that the referee shows a yellow card at a caution (FA). [The cards were introduced in 1970, but until 1992 not mentioned in the Laws of the Game.]
1995 (IFAB) Provisions concerning the legal liability of referees (as well as all other match officials): Referees are not liable for injuries to a player, team official or spectator, for material damage of any kind or any other loss of a person, club, company, association or similar institution. The following are examples of what may happen – or “any other decision which he may take in accordance with the Laws of the Game or in conformity with his duties in terms of the Federation, Association or League Rules or regulations under which the match is played”.
1996 (IFAB) Clarification: From the field is also sent who is guilty of a second cautionable offence (before: who persists in misconduct after having received a caution) (FIFA).
1997 (IFAB) Additional duties and power:
– controls the match in co-operation with the assistant referees, where applicable, with the fourth official
Additional duties and power:
– stops the match if, in his opinion, a player is seriously injured and ensures that he is removed from the field of play
– allows play to continue until the ball is out of play if a player is, in his opinion, only slightly injured
– ensures that any player bleeding from a wound leaves the field of play. The player may only return on receiving a signal from the referee, who must be satisfied that the bleeding has stopped.
– allows play to continue when the team against which an offence has been committed will benefit from such an advantage and penalties the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensure at that time
– punishes the more serious offence when a player commits more than one offence at the same time
– takes disciplinary action against players guilty of cautionable and sending-off offences. He is not obliged to take this action immediately but must do so when the ball next goes out of play
– takes action against team officials who fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner and may at his discretion, expel them from the field of play and its immediate surrounds
– acts on the advice of assistant referees regarding incidents which he has not seen.
Supplement that the referee may only change his mind if he realises that his decision was incorrect or on the advice of an assistant referee – but only if the match has not yet been kicked off.
1999 (IFAB) Change that every ball that is used meet the requirements of Law 2 (IFAB).
2002 (IFAB) The referee may not allow a player to return to the field of play until the match has been restarted (FIFA).
2005 (IFAB) The referee may also change his decision only until he has finished the match (SFA).
2008 (IFAB) Supplement that also decisions of the referee regarding weather, goal scoring and match result are final. He may also change his mind on the advice of the Fourth Official (unless he has already restarted the match). Supplement to the above examples: Not only decision in accordance with the Laws of the Game, but also “in conformity with his duties in terms of the Federation, that he may take in accordance with the Laws of the Game or in conformity with his duties under the terms of FIFA, confederation, member Association or League Rules or regulations under which the match is played”.
2012 (IFAB) Communication equipment is permitted between match officials.
2016 (IFAB) Additional, if a referee is incapacitated, play may continue under the supervision of the other match officials until the ball is next out of play. It is emphasized that the decisions of the referee, and all other match officials, must always be respected. It is specified that the referee must have whistle(s), watch(es), red and yellow cards and a notebook (or other means of keeping a record of the match and may have equipment for communicating with other match officials (buzzer/beep flags, headsets, etc.) and EPTS or other fitness monitoring equipment in addition. Also, he may not wear jewellery or other electronic equipment. The signal for advantage may now also be performed with one hand. Introduction of the passage, which was previously a decision. It is added in the text that these decisions also include to require an injured player to be removed from the field of play for treatment.
2018 (IFAB) It is added that the provisions concern only on-field referees. The VAR protocol summarizes the decisions in which the VAR may intervene and how to undertake a ‘review’.
2019 (IFAB) Addition of the cards for team officials. It has also been added that a player does not have to leave the field if he is to perform the penalty kick.

Law 6: The other Match Officials

In this article the development of the other match officials is described. This includes the assistant referees (former: linesmen), the fourth official, the additional assistant referees, the reserve assistant referee and the assistant video assistant referee.

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1891 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Introduction of assistant referees. Duty: to decide when the ball is out of play, and which side has the throw-in, to decide which side is entitled to the corner kick or the goalkick. In addition, the referee has the duty, to report every undue interference by an assistant referee to the National Association. (FA).
1897 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Additional duty: to assist in carrying out the game according to the Laws.
1902 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Change: In case of undue interference by an assistant referee, the referee has the power to order him off and substitute him (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Supplement that the assistant referees receive their flags from those who own the field of play (FAW).
1961 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Added task: They also indicate when the ball is out of play (FIFA).
1982 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Additional duty: to indicate when a substitution is desired. The notice that the referee may dispense the assistant referees from their duties in the event of undue interference shall be deleted (SFA).
1991 (IFAB) Fourth Official: Introduction of the Fourth Official. Duty: Support referees and assistant referees (FIFA).
1996 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Additional duties: to indicated when a player shall be penalised for being in an offside position and when misconduct or other incident has occurred outwit the vision of the referee (IFAB).
1997 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Reintroduction of the notice that the referee may relieve the assistant referees of their duties in the event of undue interference shall be deleted (as in 1902-1982).
2000 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Additional authority: Assistant referees indicate whether, at penalty kicks, the goalkeeper has moved forward before the ball is kicked and if the ball has crossed the goal line and assist the referee to control the match in accordance with the Laws of the Game, i.e. control the 9.15 m distance (FIFA).
2004 (DFB) Fourth Official: Specification of duties; they are listed in the appendix of the Laws of the Game.
2016 (IFAB) Assistant match officials in general: Summary of the same duties of assistant referees (except the reserve assistant referee):
– assist the referee with offences when they have a clearer view than the referee
– must submit a report to the appropriate authorities on any serious misconduct or other incident that occurred out of the view of the referee and the other match officials
– advise the referee and other match officials of any report been made
– assist the referee with inspecting the field of play, the balls and players’ equipment (including if problems have been resolved) and maintaining records of time, goals, misconduct, etc.
In addition, it applies to them all that the referee can replace them in the event of undue interference or improper conduct. Competition rules must state clearly who replaces a match official who is unable to start or continue any associated changes.
Fourth Official: Introduction of the Fourth Official (so far part of the decisions)Introduction of the Fourth Official (so far part of the decisions) and clarification of his tasks..
Additional assistant referees: Introduction of the additional assistant referees and clarification of their tasks.
Reserve assistant referee: Introduction of the reserve assistant referee and clarification of his task.
2018 (IFAB) Assistant match official in general: Adding VAR and AVAR and distinguishing the previous assistant referees as on-field match officials and VAR and AVAR as video match officials.
Video match officials: Introduction of the video match officials and clarification of their tasks.

Law 7: The Duration of the Match

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
Except for the codices of Sheffield FC and later Sheffield FA, no code specifies the game and half time durations for almost the entire 19th century, nor the FA.
1858 (Sheffield FC and FA) The duration is 60 minutes. (After the Sheffield FA had adopted the FA Rules (1878), there were 19 years of no law that regulated the duration.)
1897 (IFAB) The duration of the game shall be 90 minutes, unless otherwise mutually agreed. The interval at half-time shall not exceed five minutes, except by consent of the referee.
1938 (IFAB) More accurate addition that the playing time is divided into two 45 minutes. Further addition that lost time is determined by the referee and is replayed at the end of each half and that the playing time for the execution of a penalty shot is extended. An abandoned game must always be replayed completely.
1959 (IFAB) Change: A abandoned match does not have to be replayed if the rules of the competition in question stipulate that the result of the match is valid at the time of such an abandonment.
1987 (IFAB) Specification of exactly what is counted as lost time: “substitution, the transport from the field of injured players, time-wasting or other cause”.
1995 (IFAB) Increase the half-time interval to a maximum of 15 minutes. The interval can only be shortened with the referee’s agreement.
1997 (IFAB) Change: It is possible to shorten the playing time (e.g. because of insufficient light), but only before the beginning and must comply with competition rules. In addition, players are entitled to an interval at half-time and competition rules must state the duration of the half-time interval. An abandoned match is replaced unless the competition rules provide otherwise. Only the referee determines the injury time, i.e. for substitution(s), assessments of injury to players, removal of injured players from the field of play for treatment, wasting time and any other cause. Introduction of the extra time with two equal periods to be played under the conditions of Law 8.
2016 (IFAB) It is added that the overtime displayed is the minimum added time and can be extended; this includes drink stops and time lost by disciplinary sanctions. The Fourth Official displays the stoppage time. It is also added in the text that the referee cannot compensate for a measurement error of the added time at the end of the second half. Additional, short drinks breaks are permitted at the interval of half-time in extra time.
2018 (IFAB) It is clarified that the permitted drinking breaks must not last longer than one minute. It is clarified that the permitted drinking breaks must not last longer than one minute. It is also added that delays relating to VAR checks and reviews are added to the added time.
2019 (IFAB) It is added that medical stoppages are permitted by competition rules e.g. ‘drinks’ breaks and ‘cooling’ breaks.

Law 8: The Start and Restart of the Play

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1847 and following years (Eton Field Game) Kick-off at the beginning: bully. At half time the ends are changed.
1858 (Harrow Football) Toss, except in school games, then the team of the headmaster has the side choice. Toss decides which team has the kick-off from the centre of the field. At half time the ends are changed. Kick-off from the middle of the field, halfway between the two goals.
1862 (The Simplest Game) Kick-off at the beginning: from the middle of the field, halfway between the two goals. All other players are at least 4 yd away from the ball until it has been kicked.
1862 (Sheffield FC / FA) & 1863 (FA) Toss. Toss decides which team has the kick-off from the centre of the field (Sheffield FA until 1878, FA until 1873). At every goal or a goalless half the ends are changed. Also the restart starts with the kick-off from the centre of the field; the kick-off after a goal from the team who had suffered a goal, after half time from the team who has won the toss and the beginning of the match. Before the ball is not in play, the opposing players were only allowed to approach it up to 10 yd (marked by the middle circle).
1863 (Cambridge University) Toss. Toss decides which team has the kick-off from the centre of the field. At half time the game sides are changed.
1873 (FA) Toss. Toss decides which team can choose between kick-off or choices of ends. If they choose the end, the opponent has to kick-off (Queen’s Park). Restart: Kick-off by the same team as at the beginning.
1874 (FA) Kick-off at the beginning: No player is allowed to stand in the opposing field until the kick-off is done (Harrow Chequers).
1875 (Sheffield FA & FA) Change of sides: Only at half time the game sides are changed. (FA: Woodford Walls)
1883 (FA) Kick-off at the beginning: may only be kicked in direction of the opposing goal (Wanderers FC, Upton Park FC).
1888 (IFAB) Dropped ball: Introduction of the dropped ball: If the referee stops the game even though the ball has not crossed the goal line or touch line and there is no offence, the game is restarted with a dropped ball. Procedure: throwing the ball up at the place “where play was suspended”. The ball is in play when it touches the field of play.
1902 (IFAB) Dropped ball: Addition: If the ball went out before a player has touched it, the dropped ball is repeated.
1903 (FA) Dropped ball: In case of infringement, the game is restarted with an (indirect) free-kick.
1905 (IFAB) Kick-off at the beginning: The law is supplemented so that the provisions for free kicks also apply to the kick-off (FA).

Dropped ball: Change: The ball will not throw up, but throw down.

1914 (IFAB) Dropped ball: Specification: The ball is only dropped downwards, not thrown downwards. “throw down” -> “drop down”. (FA)
1924 (IFAB) It is supplemented in the law text to the dropped ball that with offence the opponent a free kick awarded. For this reason, this passage is deleted from the other passage (SFA).
1938 (IFAB) Toss: Supplementary [although already before usual]: A coin is used for the toss.

Dropped ball: Specification: The ball is dropped at the place where the ball was when the game was interrupted. Moreover: If this section of the Laws is not complied with the Referee shall again drop the ball.

Sanctions: Repeated ball contact: IDFK. Otherwise: restart of the kick-off.

1978 (IFAB) Sanctions: It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred (FA).
1984 (IFAB) Dropped ball: It is added that – when infringement occur was stopped and the ball was in the goal area – it is dropped on that part of the goal area line which runs parallel to the goal-line, at the point nearest to where the ball was when play (SFA).
1987 (IFAB) Sanctions: Supplement that when taking a free kick after an infringement, the general conditions for free kicks from Law 13 apply.
1997 (IFAB) Kick-off at the beginning: The fact that the free kick provisions apply to the kick-off has been deleted, but now explained in the text: The ball must rest, the kick-off is only executed after the referee has signalled, the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves forward and the player executing the kick-off must not touch the ball a second time. It has been added that a goal can be scored directly by a kick-off.

Dropped ball: Reintroduction of the provision for offences against the provisions of the dropped ball, but only those that occur before the ball touches the ground. In this case the dropped kick is repeated.

Toss: Change: The winners of the toss have only the choice of goals.

2012 (IFAB) Dropped ball: The provisions on touching the dropped ball before it reaches the ground will be deleted. The provisions on what happens when the dropped ball enters a goal without touching it are supplemented.
2019 (IFAB) Dropped ball: Change of the procedure: The ball is dropped for the defending team goalkeeper in their penalty area if, when play was stopped, the ball was in the penalty area or the last touch of the ball was in the penalty area. In all other cases, the referee drops the ball for one player of the team that last touched the ball at the position where it last touched a player, an outside agent or, as outlined in Law 9.1, a match official. All other players (of both teams) must remain at least 4 m (4.5 yds) from the ball until it is in play.

Kick-off after goals: The winners of the toss shall have the option of kick-off or choice of goals (as before 1997).

Kick-off at the beginning: The winners of the toss shall have the option of kick-off or choice of goals (as before 1997).

Toss: The winners of the toss shall have the option of kick-off or choice of goals (as before 1997).

Law 9: The Ball in and out of Play

Until 1938, this laws comprised descriptions of the continuation of the game after the ball went into touch or behind the goal. The addition of throw-in, goal kick and corner kick made this obsolete.

Since 1938, this law comprises a description when the ball is in and out the play – and that can be quickly described: If he leaves the field or the referee interrupts the game. This was described in more detail in the FA Rules from 1886 onwards in several rules. A brief summary:

Ball in play

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1887 (IFAB) Addition: A ball on the line is in play.
1896 (IFAB) Addition: The ball remains in play even if it hits the corner flag, referee or assistant referee (FA).

Ball out of play

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1888 (IFAB) The ball is out of play when it crosses the touch line or goal line, either on the ground or in the air.
1895 (IFAB) Addition: The ball is considered to be in play until the referee indicates that he is out of play (FA).
1997 (IFAB) The ball is out of play when it has completely crossed the line or when the play has been stopped by the referee.
2019 (IFAB) The referee is no longer “air”, if it touches a match official, remains on the field of play and
– a team starts a promising attack or
– the ball goes directly into the goal or
– the team in possession of the ball changes

Law 10: Determining the Outcome of a Match

A goal is obtained when the ball crosses the goal line between the goal posts and – after their introduction – below the crossbar or rope. All football codes have that in common, whereby some codes from the first decades of the 19th century also allow the throwing of a goal. In fact, this description is not to be found in all rules and regulations, as it was all too unambiguous.

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1863 (FA) A goal is scored when the ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts from the field.
1866 (FA) A goal is scored when the ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts and below the goal rope (as a height limit).
1867 (Sheffield FA) A goal is scored when the ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts and below the goal band (as a height limit).
1872 (FA) Touching the goalposts is not a goal (Wanderers FC). It is important if the ball jumps from there behind the goal line or not.
1875 (FA) Touching the rope or the crossbar as well as the corner flags is not a goal (Queen’s Park). It is important if the ball jumps from there behind the goal line or not.
1938 (IFAB) The team scoring the greater number of goals during a game shall be the winner; if no goals, or an equal number of goals are scored the game shall be termed a ‘draw’. If an outside agent wants to prevent a goal, but he failed and the ball enters the goal, the goal must be allowed.
1939 (IFAB) Addition that the ball may not be carried into the goal (FA).
1969 (IFAB) Intervention by an outside agent: Addition: In this case the game is restarted by a dropped ball at the place where the contact or interference occurred (SFA).
1970 (IFAB) Introduction of the Kicks from penalty mark, but not as a part of Law 10.
1985 (IFAB) Intervention by an outside agent: It is added that – when play was stopped and the ball was in the goal area – it is dropped on that part of the goal area line which runs parallel to the goal-line, at the point nearest to where the ball was when play (IFA).
1997 (IFAB) Supplement that, depending on the competition rules, the extra time follows a draw after 90 minutes.
2012 (IFAB) GLT is permitted to assist the referee in deciding whether a goal has been scored (FIFA).
2016 (IFAB) Introduction of the Kicks from penalty mark in the Laws of the Game (previously included in the Appendix). It is added that if a referee signals a goal before the ball has passed wholly over the goal, a goal kick is awarded.
2019 (IFAB) Kicks from penalty mark: It is added that each kick is taken by a different player, and all eligible players must take a kick before any player can take a second kick.

Law 11: The Offside Rule

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1847 and following years (Eton Field Game) Offside: “Sneaking” is when the attacking player is between the ball and the opposing goal and there are three or fewer opponents in front of him/her. Enabled a combination game here early on.
1858 (Sheffield FC) Offside: Someone who stand behind the touch line and goal line, is offside.
1858 (Harrow Football) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball.
1862 (The Simplest Game) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball.
1862 (Blackheath FC) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball.
1863 (Shrewsbury School) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball.
1863 (Cambridge University) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball.
1863 (FA) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent’s goal line than the ball.
1866 (FA) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent’s goal line than the ball, if less than three opposing players were standing in front of the attacking player. Those who were offside were not allowed to participate in the game, i.e. not to touch the ball or prevent anyone from touching the ball. The reason for this change: The principle of justice.
1867 (Sheffield FA) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent’s goal line than the ball, if less than two opposing players were standing in front of the attacking player at the moment of passing.
1873 (FA) Offside: Added: “[…] at the moment of passing the ball” (Uxbridge FC).
1873 (FA) No offside: In case of a goal kick no offside rule applies (Uxbridge FC).
1874 (FA) Offside: In case of an infringement of the law, the game restarts with an (indirect) free kick for the opposing team (Harrow Chequers).
1879 (FA) Offside: In case of a throw-in the offside law applies (Wanderers FC; Old Harrovians FC).
1882 (FA) No offside: If the ball comes from the opponent an offside position is impossible. (Old Etonians, Finchley).
1907 (IFAB) No offside: If the player comes from his own half. (SFA).
1920 (IFAB) No offside: Change: With a goal-kick or a thrown-in no offside position is possible (FA).
1925 (IFAB) Offside: Reduction to two opponents nearer their own goal line (SFA).
1953 (IFAB) It is emphasized that offside is only punishable if a player interfere with or attempts to play.
1978 (IFAB) Sanctions: It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred.
1990 (IFAB) Offside: Change: An attacking player on the same level as the second-last opponent is not offside (SFA).
1997 (IFAB) No offside: Supplement: A pass from one’s own half does not allow offside. An offside position is possible for a free kick.
Sanctions: Amendment: Any IDFK for an offence against Law 11 will be performed at the place of the offence.
2016 (IFAB) No offside: For clarification, the text adds that the hands do not play a role in the offside decision.
2018 (IFAB) Offside: It is added in the text that the first point of contact of the ‘play’ or ‘touch’ of the ball should be used. It is also clarified that “near” means “close by”. In addition, for an offside offence, the moment the offside player touches the ball is important, not the last touch before the pass.

Law 12: Fouls and Misconduct

Unfair, violent and dangerous conduct

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1856 (Cambridge University) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1857 (Eton Field Game) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1858 (Harrow Football) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1858 (Sheffield FC) The first draft of the Sheffield FC Rules allows a player who performs a place kick (but not a goal kick) to be charged during the kick. This passage was deleted in the published Sheffield FC Rules. Holding and kicking a player was forbidden.
1862 (Blackheath FC) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking, except attacking an opponent while running.
1862 (The Simplest Game) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1862 (Eton Field Game) All fouls with arms and hands. (With legs and feet allowed.)
1863 (Shrewsbury School) All fouls with arms and hands. (With legs and feet allowed.)
1863 (Cambridge University) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1863 (FA) Charging, tripping, intentional kicking, holding, pushing.
1867 (Sheffield FA) Pushing, kicking, tripping.
1869 (FA) Attacking of a player from behind (Upton Park FC)
1871 (Sheffield FA) Attacking of a player from behind.
1874 (FA) In case of an infringement of the law, the opponent awarded an indirect free kick from the point of the foul (Harrow Chequers).
1877 (FA) Players may be sent off because of their illegal play and may not be replaced.
1878 (FA) Whoever stands with his back to the opponent and hinder him/her can be charged (Reading FC).
1880 (FA) Jumping on opponents (Darwen Club).
1888 (IFAB) Charging to opponent is prohibited only if he does not consciously turn his face to the goal to wilfully interfering with his opponent.
1892 (IFAB) The law is supplemented so that not only because of impeding, but also to cause an injury, no one may be wilfully turned his back.
1898 (IFAB) It is added that pushing or acting in any manner likely to cause injury is always forbidden and not just by wilfully turning his back (FA).
1904 (IFAB) It is specified that when charging from behind it is enough to impede and that besides only intentionally, no longer wilfully. The opponent no longer has to turn his head away.
1905 (IFAB) The law is supplemented so that charging is basically allowed, provided it is neither violent nor dangerous (FA).
1914 (IFAB) To strike is supplemented as an ungentlemanly conduct (FA).
1938 (IFAB) It is specified that intentionally practicing an offence is sufficient to be punished. In addition, being charged from behind is sufficient, only deliberate to obstruct and the referee should prevent any behaviour that is considered dangerous by him.
DFK: Kicking, striking, jumping on, tripping, holding, charging in a dangerous or violent way or pushing an opponent, handball, carrying the ball as a goalkeeper by the defending team outside penalty area.
Penalty kick: Kicking, striking, jumping on, tripping, holding, charging in a dangerous or violent way or pushing an opponent, handball, carrying the ball as a goalkeeper by the defending team outside penalty area.
IDFK: 1) Carrying the ball as a goalkeeper in his own penalty area, 2) kicking, striking, jumping on, tripping, holding, charging in a dangerous or violent way or pushing an opponent, handball, carrying the ball as a goalkeeper by the offending team in the opponent’s penalty area, 3) charging the goalkeeper and dangerous play, independent if inside or ouside of der penalty area.Caution: 1) Joining his team after the kick-off or returns to the field of play while the game is in progress without reporting to the referee, 2) Persistently infringes any of the Laws of the Game, 3) shows dissent by word or action from any decision given by the referee.
Send-off: 1) Persisting in misconduct after having received a caution, 2) violent conduct (i.e., using foul or abusive language or if, in the opinion of the referee, he is guilts of serious foul play).
1939 (IFAB) In addition, carrying becomes an ungentlemanly conduct. The misdemeanours are first described as “ungentlemanly manner” in the laws. The law is changed so that charging the goalkeeper is only penalized within the penalty area with an IDFK. Furthermore, every offence, not only those against opponents, will be penalized with a dismissal (FA).
1948 (IFAB) Attempts to kick or strike alone are considered ungentlemanly conduct, as are persistent infringement of the Laws of the Game and showing dissent by word or action from any decision given by the Referee and charging fairly without the ball in playing distance. In addition, the attempt to kick the ball when it is held straight by the goalkeeper is mentioned as an example of dangerous play (FA). It is generalized that at each ungentlemanly conduct an IDFK is awarded to the opposing team. In addition it is added that if a player enters the field after the start of play without the permission of the referee, the player will be cautioned, and if the game has been stopped, it shall be restarted by the Referee dropping the ball at the place where the infringement occurred, but if the player commits a more important offence he shall be penalised according to that portion of the Law infringed (FIFA).
1951 (IFAB) It is supplemented as an ungentlemanly conduct to obstruct an opponent intentionally when not playing the ball, i. e. running between the opponent and the ball, or interposing the body so as to form an obstacle to an opponent (FIFA).
1967 (IFAB) The law is supplemented so that not only in serious foul play but also in violent conduct the opinion of the referee is decisive (FA).
1972 (IFAB) It is added for the completeness that this punishment applies only if no other more serious infringement of the Laws of the Game was committed (FIFA). The law is changed so that – if the offence which was the direct cause of the caution – is awarded a DFK instead of an IDFK (SFA).
1978 (IFAB) It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred. It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred (FA).
1980 (IFAB) To spit at an opponent is supplemented as an ungentlemanly conduct (FIFA).
1981 (IFAB) The law is changed so that the referee’s opinion is also decisive in the assessment of abusive language and persisting in misconduct (FA).
1987 (IFAB) Supplement that when taking a free kick after an infringement, the general conditions for free kicks from Law 13 apply (FA).
1995 (IFAB) It is made clear that tackling without contact to the ball is considered an ungentlemanly conduct. “intentionally obstruction” -> “impeding the progress”. In addition, handball is now forbidden, provided it is deliberately performed, not intentionally (SFA).
1996 (IFAB) The law is amended so that the offences need not be intentional in order to be punished (FA). It is made clear that tackling without contact to the ball is considered an ungentlemanly conduct. “intentionally obstruction” -> “impeding the progress”. In addition, handball is now forbidden, provided it is deliberately performed, not intentionally (SFA).
1997 (IFAB) Jumping at, tackling and spitting an opponent is no longer mentioned as ungentlemanly conduct. As caution-worthy offences are supplemented: delaying the restart of play and failing to respect the required distance when play is restarted with a corner kick or free kick. As sending-off-worthy offence is supplemented: spitting.
2000 (IFAB) The law is supplemented so that not only abusive language, but also abusive gestures are punished with a field reference (FA).
2001 (IFAB) Additionally, a player who has been sent off must leave the vicinity of the field of play and the technical area. The law is supplemented so that only a player may be shown the yellow or red card (FIFA).
2005 (IFAB) Additionally, the Referee has the authority to take disciplinary sanctions, as from the moment he enters the field of play until he leaves the field of play after the final whistle (FAW).
2008 (IFAB) Jumping at, tackling and spitting an opponent is again mentioned as ungentlemanly conduct. The cards are added to the Laws of the Game and generally explained that the yellow card is shown for warnings, the red card for field references. Additionally, It is added to the passage that a player, substitute or substituted player who has been sent off must leave the vicinity of the field of play and the technical area.
2019 (IFAB) It is added that all verbal offences are penalised with an IDFK and also kicking of an object after someone is awarded by a DFK.

Handball

More about the handball rule on Football-History.info:

Thoughts about the handball

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1856 (Cambridge University) Any handball is prohibited.
1857 (Eton Field Game) Stopping the ball with the hand is allowed.
1858 (Harrow Football) Any handball is prohibited.
1858 (Sheffield FC) Holding and picking up the ball with the hands while it was bouncing on the ground is allowed. Pushing and bouncing the ball with hands is prohibited.
1862 (Eton Field Game) Catching the ball is allowed.
1862 (The Simplest Game) Catching the ball is allowed.
1862 (Sheffield FC) Any handball is prohibited.
1862 (Blackheath FC) Any handball is prohibited.
1863 (Cambridge University) Any handball is prohibited.
1863 (Shrewsbury School) Catching the ball is allowed.
1863 (FA) The last draft still allows handball (for discussion about hacking and handling see here (only German)), the published FA Rules forbid any handball.
1870 (FA) Any handball is prohibited whether the touch was intentional or unintentional (Upton Park FC).
1874 (FA) If the law is infringed, the opponent awards an indirect free kick (Harrow Chequers).
1878 (FA) If the handball happens near the own goal (no goalkeeper handball) and the referee considers the the ball would otherwise have went into the goal, a goal is obtained (Finchley, Old Harrovians).
1882 (FA) “Near the goal” is defined as 2 yd in front of the goal (Sheffield FA).
1897 (IFAB) “wilfully”: Only handball which is wilfully committed, is forbidden.
1898 (IFAB) “intentionally”: Only handball which is intentionally committed, is forbidden (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Definition of handball changed to: “Handles the ball, i.e. strikes or propels it with the hand or arm”. An offence is punished with a DFK instead of IDFK.
1949 (IFAB) Supplement to the definition of handball: “carries”. Further supplement that this provision does not apply to the goalkeeper’s handball in his own penalty area. If an infringement is committed, a DFK is imposed instead of an IDFK (FIFA).
1995 (IFAB) “deliberately”: Only handball which is deliberately committed, is forbidden (SFA).
2019 (IFAB) The decision as to whether a handball is involved is no longer made simply on the basis of deliberation, but also on the basis of consequence. A goal must never be scored or prepared by hand. In addition, it has been specified when a handball is usually played and when it is not.

The Fair Catch

Until the beginning of the 1860s, the Fair Catch was known in the codices of Blackheath FC, Shrewsbury School and the Football Association. The Fair Catch was only discussed in 1863 in the FA Rules, but remained until 1871. It also remained valid in the Sheffield FA Rules (from 1867) until 1871.

It was obtained by catching the ball which had not previously bounced on the ground. The catcher has to possibilities: 1) carving a mark with its heel into the ground after catching the ball and getting a free kick or 2) running with the ball (and can be charge roughly). The free kick was a direct free kick in Cambridge and in the FA Rules, and indirect free kick in Sheffield FA Rules.

Handball of goalkeepers

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1871 (FA) The player closest to his/her own goal is allowed to handle the ball to protect his/her own goal (Upton Park).
1873 (FA) The goalkeeper must not carry the ball (Queen’s Park).
1874 (FA) The goalkeeper may not be changed in a flying manner. If the goalkeeper moved too far out of  his goal, he/she could not simply be replaced by another player in order not to risk a goal (Maidenhead FC, Gitanos FC). But “too far away” was not regulated by that law.
1875 (FA) The passage “to protect the goal” is replaced by “to defend the goal” (Harrown Chequers).
1875 (FA) The goalkeeper may throw and hit the ball (Vale of Leven FC).
1875 (Sheffield FA) The player closest to his or her own goal goal may handle ball to protect his or her own goal.
1876 (Sheffield FA) The goalkeeper may throw and hit the ball with his hands in case of defense, but may not carry it.
1882 (FA) The goalkeeper is allowed to handle the ball in the own half. Previously it had not been limited in the laws.
1887 (IFAB) The allowed goalkeeper handball is limited to the own halves of the game.
1888 (IFAB) The goalkeeper may pick up the ball to protect his goal.
1901 (IFAB) It is emphasised that although the goalkeeper may hold the ball in his own half with his hands, he may no longer carry it (FA).
1912 (IFAB) Further restriction of the goalkeeper’s hand game, now to the own penalty area (SFA).
1924 (IFAB) The unauthorised handling of goalkeepers outside their own penalty area will be removed from this passage (FA).
1931 (IFAB) The goalkeeper is allowed to carry the ball again (as before 1901). At the same time, the goalkeeper is allowed to increase the number of steps from two to four with the ball in his hands in his own penalty area. [The restriction to two steps was already laid down before 1886 in the definition of “carrying” (FA).
1937 (IFAB) Restriction of goalkeeper handball by changing the goal kick law and free kick law in his own penalty area: The goalkeeper may not touch the ball with his hands in goal kicks, corner kicks and free kicks even in his own penalty area. In addition, the goalkeeper is forbidden to carry the ball, as was the case between 1901 and 1931 (FA).
1938 (IFAB) The goalkeeper may again touch the ball with his hands in his own penalty area during goal kicks, corner kicks and free kicks. After bouncing the ball it is possible for him to take four more steps.
1949 (IFAB) If the goalkeeper wasted time, is/her team is penalised with an indirect free kick to be taken at the point of infringement (IFAB).An offence against this law will be punished with an IDFK (FIFA).
1967 (IFAB) Change: By bouncing the ball on the ground the goalkeeper is not allowed to take another four steps, nor by throwing the ball in the air and catching it before the ball touches another player. It is also forbidden to commit time wasting by the allowed hand play (IFAB).
1978 (IFAB) It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred (FA).
1987 (IFAB) Supplement that when taking a free kick after an infringement, the general conditions for free kicks from Law 13 apply (FA).
2000 (IFAB) Instead of taking four steps with the ball, the goalkeeper must now bring the ball back into play within 6 seconds (IFAB).
2001 (IFAB) Removal that time wasting by the goalkeeper is punished with an IDFK (FIFA)
2019 (IFAB) The goalkeeper has the same restrictions on handling the ball as any other player outside the penalty area. If the goalkeeper handles the ball inside their penalty area when not permitted to do so, an indirect free kick is awarded but there is no disciplinary sanction.

Leaving and entering the field of play & exchange of the goalkeeper

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1897 (IFAB) The fact that no more than one goalkeeper per team are allowed to play at the same time is now self-explanatory. It is added that the change of goalkeeper may only be carried out after informing the referee.
1938 (IFAB) If, without notifying the Referee, a player changes to goalkeeper during the game, and then handles the ball within the penalty area, a penalty-kick shall be awarded. Any player leaving the field during the progress of the game (except through accident) without the consent of the Referee shall be deemed guilty of ungentlemanly conduct. A penalty kick shall be taken if a goalkeeper not permitted by the referee plays a handball in the penalty area. In addition, any player who plays in the progress of the game (except through accident) leaved the field of play without the permission of the referee, is deemed guilty of ungentlemanly conduct.
1939 (IFAB) The law is added so that leaving the field without registration with and permission from the referee is also considered ungentlemanly conduct (FA).
1949 (IFAB) Addition concerning players who intentionally enter the field during the game without permission: If the game must be restarted by the Referee dropping the ball at the place where the infringement occurred, but if the player has committed a more important offence, he shall be penalized according to that section of the Law infringed (FIFA).
1965 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that these requirements also apply to substitutes and substituted players (IFAB).
1967 (IFAB) Amendment that a named substitute may also take the position of goalkeeper (IFAB).
1972 (IFAB) Supplement that when a goalkeeper is replaced, the general procedure of replacement must be observed, because in this case the referee’s permission is required, not just information to him (SFA).
1973 (IFAB) It is added that if the goalkeeper is changed, the referee must first give a signal. It is further added that after caution the player the game will be restarted with an IDFK (SFA).
1975 (IFAB) The remark “except through accident” is specified and generalized to “unintentionally or because of injury” as it were (FIFA).
1976 (IFAB) The IDFK is not performed at the scene of the offence, but where the ball was when the game was interrupted (FIFA).
1978 (IFAB) It is added that if the free-kick is awarded to a side within its own goal area it may be taken from any point within the half of the goal area in which the ball was when play was stopped. The passage is completed so that the two players are cautioned as soon as the ball is out of play. It also adds that for any other infringement of this law, the game is stopped, the player is cautioned, and the game is restarted with an IDFK for the opposing team (FA).
1980 (IFAB) In addition, as with any substitution, a substituted goalkeeper may not participate in the game again (FA).
1986 (IFAB) In addition, as with any substitution, the substitution shall be deemed completed when the substitute enters the field (SFA).
1987 (IFAB) Supplement that when taking a free kick after an infringement, the general conditions for free kicks from Law 13 apply (FA).
1993 (IFAB) The law is supplemented so that the yellow card is shown in addition to the caution.
1997 (IFAB) In the event of an offence against the regulations, the players involved will be cautioned in the next stoppage and shown the yellow card.
2006 (IFAB) It is added in general that only a player, substitute or substituted player may be shown the red or yellow card and that the Referee has the authority to take disciplinary sanctions, as from the moment he enters the field of play until he leaves the field of play after the final whistle. The passage about the goalkeeper change is deleted. It is summarised: Caution und yellow card of a player, if he is guilty of unsporting behaviour, shows dissent by word or action, persistently infringes the Laws of the Game, delays the restart of play or fails to respect the required distance when play is restarted with a corner kick or free kick or throw-in. Caution and yellow card for a substitute or substituted player, if he is guilty of unsporting behaviour, shows dissent by word or action, delays the restart of play. Sending-off and red card, it he is guilty of serious foul play, is guilty of violent conduct, spits at an opponent or any other person, uses offensive or insulting or abusive language and/or gestures, receives a second caution in the same match (FIFA).
2008 (IFAB) The addition that the yellow card is shown as a warning is deleted.
2016 (IFAB) The passage of what happens if a player changes the goalkeeper’s position without the referee’s permission before the change is made is deleted. Reintroduction of the passage: If a player enters the field of play with permission, the referee stops the play, but (not immediately if the player does not interfere with play or a match official or if the advantage can be applied and subsequently caution the player. If the referee stops the play, it is restarted with a direct free kick from the position of the interference or with an indirect free kick from the position of the ball when play was stopped if there was no interference. It is added that a player who crosses a boundary line as part of a playing movement, does not commit an offence.

Fouls on goalkeepers

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1892 (IFAB) Playing in a dangerous manner is any action that, while trying to play the ball, threatens injury to someone (including the player themselves) and includes preventing a nearby opponent from playing the ball for fear of injury. (IFA).
1897 (IFAB) Impeding the progress of an opponent means moving into the opponent’s path to obstruct, block, slow down or force a change of direction when the ball is not within playing distance of either player.
1901 (IFAB) All players have a right to their position on the field of play; being in the way of an opponent is not the same as moving into the way of an opponent (FA).
1902 (IFAB) A player may shield the ball by taking a position between an opponent and the ball if the ball is within playing distance and the opponent is not held off with the arms or body. If the ball is within playing distance, the player may be fairly charged by an opponent (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Intentionally joining the team after the game has started or returns to the field of play while the game is in progress, without reporting to the referee, is considered an ungentlemanly conduct.
1949 (IFAB) Charging the goalkeeper except when he (a) is holding the ball; (b) is obstruction an opponent; (c) has passed outside his goal-area, is caution by an IDFK (FIFA).

Back pass rule

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1992 (IFAB) On any occasion when a player deliberately kicks the ball to his own goalkeeper, the goalkeeper is not permitted to touch it with his hands. Otherwise, the match will be restarted with an IDFK from the place where the offence occurred for the opposing team (FIFA).

DOGSO

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1992 (IFAB) On any occasion when a player deliberately kicks the ball to his own goalkeeper, the goalkeeper is not permitted to touch it with his hands. Otherwise, the match will be restarted with an IDFK from the place where the offence occurred for the opposing team.
1993 (IFAB) If a player pass the ball to his own goalkeeper for a deliberate trick in order do circumvent Article 5(c) of Law XII, the player will be guilty of ungentlemanly conduct. The game will be restarted with a IDFK from the place where the player committed the offence.
1997 (IFAB) The law is added so that the same applies if denied by a deliberately handball an obvious goal-scoring opportunity.
2001 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that the preventing player is also shown the yellow or red card (IFAB).
2005 (IFAB) It is emphasized that the referee has the authority to take disciplinary sanctions, as from the moment he enters the field of play until he leaves the field of play after the final whistle (FAW).
2006 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that the requirements apply to substitutes and substituted players (FIFA).
2008 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that a player who is sent off must leave the vicinity.

Cards for team officials

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
2019 (IFAB) Introduction of cards for team officials including penalty catalogue.

Law 13: The Free Kick

In the beginning, the free kick was a reward and it was always indirect. The distinction between direct and indirect free kicks, which is completely normal today, only came about in the 1920s.

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1858 (Harrow Football) A free kick is a reward for fair catch, if you additionally call “three yards”. If in Harrow the ball was caught near the opponent’s goal, you could jump 3 yd for reaching the goal or went back and take a free kick as a place kick.
1858 (Sheffield FC) A free kick ist a reward for having first touched the ball after it into the touch or behind the goal. This reward was, depending on the place a throw-in, goal kick or corner kick. When taking a free kick, all players have to stay 6 yd away from the ball or stand on the goal line until the ball is kicked. All free kicks are indirect free kicks.
1863 (Cambridge University) A free kick is a reward for fair catch. The kick may be taken in any manner. All players must be at least 10 yd away from the ball until the ball is kicked and no player is offside.
1863 (FA) A free kick ist a reward for having first touched the ball after it into the touch or behind the goal. This reward was, depending on the place a throw-in, goal kick or corner kick. When taking a free kick, all players have to stay 6 yd away from the ball or stand on the goal line until the ball is kicked. All free kicks are indirect free kicks.
1869 (Sheffield FA) Only the players of the opposing team must be 6 yd away from the ball until it is kicked.
1872 (FA) After the prohibition of Fair Catch (1871) the free kick was handed out as a penalty for an infringement of the law (Harrow Chequers). Initially, it is not specified more precisely in the law when the free kick is handed out.
1874 (FA) Every free kick is an indirect free kick, i.e. a goal cannot be scored directly by it (Harrow Chequers). It was handed out as a penalty for an infringement of the laws of the goal kick, corner kick and offside and handball – all during the game. If a player behaves ungentlemanly during a stoppage in the game, before or after the game, no free kicks may be taken, but cautions and dismissals may be given.
1875 (FA) The free kick is kicked at the point where the infringement of the law occurred (Royal Engineers).
1877 (FA) Added: It was handed out as a penalty for an infringement of the determination of the choice of ends.
1896 (IFAB) A goal can never be scored from a free-kick – except in a penalty kick. Kick-off, corner-kick und goal-kick are free kicks within the meaning of this law (FA).
1903 (IFAB) Only a penalty kick can directly score a goal from a free kick (FA).
1905 (IFAB) When a free kick is performed, the opponents must be at least 6 yd away from the ball. The ball is in play when it makes a complete circuit or travel the distance of its circumference (FA).
1913 (IFAB) Increase the distance for opponents from 6 yd to 10 yd (FA).
1924 (IFAB) In addition, a corner kick can be used to score a goal directly (SFA).
1929 (IFAB) Removal of the passage, replacing by splitting into indirect free kick and direct free kick (FA).
1931 (IFAB) In addition, the goal scoring is only possible in the opposing goal (FIFA).
1932 (IFAB) As soon as the game has been stopped due to ungentlemanly conduct, it must be restarted with a free kick (FA).
1936 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that opponents may only be closer than 10 yd to the ball if they would otherwise be off the field. In this case they must be on the goal line (FA).
1938 (IFAB) The ball is not in play until it is beyond the penalty area. Players who do not retire to the proper distance when a free-kick is taken must be cautioned. Every attempt to delay the taking of a free-kick is also considered a serious misconduct. It is ungentlemanly conduct to dance or gesticulate as an opponent in front of the player performing the free kick.
1965 (IFAB) If a player of the opposing side encroaches into the penalty-area, or within ten yards of the ball, as the case may be, before a free-kick is taken, the Referee shall delay the taking if the kick, until the Law is complied with.
1978 (IFAB) It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred (FA).
1980 (IFAB) The data in the metric measurement system are supplemented (FIFA).
1997 (IFAB) Re-Introduction of a passage about indirect and direct free kicks. Kick is retaken, if an opponent is closer to the ball than the required distance or when the ball is not kicked directly into play from the penalty area of the defending team.
IDFK, if the player who performs the free kick plays the ball a second time.
DFK, if, after the ball is in play, the kicker deliberately handles the ball before it has touched another player. The free kick is taken at the place where the infringement against the Law occurred. But if this occurs inside the own goal area of the defending team, it is taken from any point within the goal area, if it occurs in the penalty area of the opponent, a penalty kick is awarded. If the free kick is taken outside the penalty area, the ball is now in play as soon as it is kicked and moves.
2018 (IFAB) It is added, that also offences by substitute, substituted or sent off player, or team official are penalised by a free kick. It is added, that the referee need not show the signal for an IDFK if it is clear that a goal cannot be scored directly.
2019 (IFAB) It is added that if an opposing player infringes the required distance to the ‘wall’, an IDFK is awarded. It is added that where three or more defending team players form a ‘wall’, all attacking team players must remain at least 1 m (1 yd) from the ‘wall’ until the ball is in play.

Law 14: The Penalty Kick

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1891 (IFAB) Deliberately tripping or holding an opposing player, or deliberately handling the ball shall be penalized on appeal within the penalty area (12 yards in front of each goal) with a penalty kick.
penalty area: within 12 yards of his own goal-line
penalty mark: a line 12 yds in front of every goal. The penalty kick can be taken from any point 12 yards from the goal-line. It is specified that – with the exception of the player taking the penalty kick and the opposing goal-keeper – all player stand at least 6 yd behind the ball. The goalkeeper may approach the ball up to 6 yd until the penalty kick is taken. The ball is in play as soon as it’s kicked (all IFA).
1892 (IFAB) Repeated touching of the ball by the player taking the kick is prohibited (SFA).
1893 (IFAB) Pushing an opponent within the penalty area is added as an offence that is punished with a penalty kick (FA).
1896 (IFAB) Charging an opponent from behind within the penalty area shall be added as an offence punishable by a penalty kick. It is added to the passage that only wilfully played handball in the penalty area is punished with a penalty kick, no longer deliberately handling of the ball. Also changed is that the referee determines whether a penalty kick is awarded. The ball must be kicked forward (SFA, FA).
1898 (IFAB) Not every wilfully committed handball will be punished, but only if intentionally handling the ball within the penalty area.
1902 (DFB) The passage is changed so that the penalty kick may only be taken by the penalty mark (“penalty kick mark”). It is specified that – with the exception of the player taking the penalty kick and the opposing goal-keeper – all player stand outside of the penalty area. The passage is changed so that the goalkeeper must be in his goal area until the penalty kick is taken. A free kick shall also be awarded to the opposite side if the ball is not kicked forward, or is played a second time by the player who takes the penalty kick, until it has been played by another player (FA).
1903 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that the referee does not have to punish the offences if this gives an advantage to the offending team. It is also added that a penalty kick can be awarded irrespective of the position of the ball at the time the offence is committed. In the event of the ball touching the goal-keeper before passing between the posts, when a penalty kick is being taken at the expiry of time, a goal is scored (FA).
1905 (IFAB) The passage is changed so that the goalkeeper is not allowed to stand behind his goal line in the field. It is added to the passage that if when a penalty kick is taken the ball passes between the goal posts, under the bar, the goal shall not be nullified by reason of any infringement by the defending side (FA).
1923 (IFAB) It is specified that – with the exception of the player taking the penalty kick and the opposing goal-keeper – all player stand outside of the penalty area and at least 10 yards from where the kick is being taken (IFA).
1929 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that all players must stand within the field. The goalkeeper must stand still on the goal line until the penalty kick is taken (FA).
1937 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that the goalkeeper must stand on the goal line between the two goalposts until the penalty kick is taken (FA).
1938 (IFAB) For the performance of the penalty kick, both halves of the playing time are extended by the appropriate duration (FAW). For clarification the following is added: “stand (without moving his feet)”. It is summarized that when a goal is scored it (a) continues to count for an infringement by the defending team (otherwise: the penalty kick will be retaken), (b) it will be disallowed and the kick is retaken, for any infringement by the attacking team, other than by the player taking the kick, if a goal is scored by this player, (c) it will be disallowed and the game will continue with an IDFK, for any infringement by the player taking the penalty-kick, a player of the opposing team shall take an indirect free-kick from the sport where the infringement occurred.
1939 (IFAB) The passage is changed so that the ball is only in play once it has travelled the distance of its circumference (FA).
1967 (IFAB) It is emphasized that for a misdemeanour of this law for any infringement by the player taking the penalty-kick only offences after the ball is in play are decisive (IFAB).
1978 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that, if the offence is committed by the player in his opponents’ goal area, the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area in which the offence occurred (FA).
1982 (IFAB) If necessary, time of play shall be extended to admit of the penalty kick being taken (SFA).
1986 (IFAB) The player taking the penalty kick must be properly identified (FIFA).
1995 (IFAB) “When it is being taken, all players with the exception of the player taking the kick, properly identified, and the opposing goalkeeper shall be within the field of play but outside the penalty area and at least 10 yards from the penalty-mark and must stand behind the penalty-mark.
1997 (IFAB) The player taking the penalty kick infringes the Laws of the Game, the referee allows the kick to proceed. If the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken, if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is not retaken. The goalkeeper infringes the Laws of the Game, the referee allows the kick to proceed. If the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded, if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is retaken. A team-mate of the player taking the kick enters the penalty area or moves in front of or within 9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty mark, the referee allows the kick to proceed. If the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken, if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is not retaken. A team-mate of the goalkeeper enters the penalty area or moves in front of or within 9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty mark, the referee allows the kick to proceed. If the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded, if the ball dies not enter the goal, the kick is retaken. A player of both the defending team and the attacking team infringe the Laws of the Game, the kick is retaken. If the ball is touched by an outside agent as it moves forward, the kick is retaken. If the ball rebounds into the field of play from the goalkeeper, the crossbar or the goalposts, and is then touched by an outside agent, the referee stops the play and the play is restarted with a dropped ball at the place where it touched the outside agent. IDFK: Repeated ball contact by the player taking the penalty kick. DFK: deliberately handling the ball by the player taking the penalty kick. It is added to passage that a penalty kick is awarded against a team which commits an offences for which a direct kick is awarded, inside its own penalty area and while the ball is in play. A goal may be scored directly from a penalty kick. The referee does not signal for a penalty kick to be taken until the player have taken up position in accordance with the law and decides when a penalty kick has been completed. The passage is changed so that the ball is in play once it has been kicked. It is added to the passage that both halves of the extra time are extended for the performance of the penalty kick. The game ends when the ball touches the goalposts, the crossbar or the goalkeeper.
2005 (IFAB) The passage is changed so that the game is restarted with an IDFK for the opposing team, if the player taking the penalty kick infringes the Laws of the Game or a team-mate of him enters the penalty area or moves in front of or within 9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty mark (FIFA).
2006 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that the IDFK are executed at the place where the offence took place. In addition, the passage is deleted with the appropriate distance and is generally supplemented so that the penalty is awarded for each offence against the law.
2008 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that after the players have taken positions in accordance with this Law, the referee signals for the penalty kick to be taken. It is further added that the referee decides when a penalty kick has been completed.
2016 (IFAB) It is added that goalposts, crossbar, and goal net must not be moving. It is added in the text that backheeling is allowed as long as it move the ball forward. It is also added that the kick is completed when the ball stops moving, goes out of play or the referee stops play for any offence.
2019 (IFAB) It is added that the goalkeeper is not allowed to touch the goalposts, crossbar or goal net, until the ball has been kicked. Beside, he must have at least only part of one foot touching, or in line with, the goal line, when the ball is kicked. It is added that no free kick can be awarded if an offence occurs between the signal of the referee and the kick.
2022 (IFAB) One foot of the goalkeeper must be either on the goal line or behind it.

Law 15: The Throw-In (and Kick-In)

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1857 (Eton Field Game) Choice between throw-in or a bully at the opposite of the field.
1858 (Sheffield FC) If the ball went into touch, the person who touched the ball first was allowed to throw the ball into field from the point where the ball went out. The Sheffield FC Rules also fixed that the distance between all other players must be at least 6 yd until the ball was back in play.
1858 (Harrow Football) Kick-in (nothing else is mentioned).
1862 (The Simplest Game) Kick-in from the point where the ball went out.
1862 (Blackheath FC) Throw-in from the point of touching the ball.
1863 (FA) If the ball went into touch, the person who touched the ball first was allowed to throw the ball into field from the point where the ball went out. The FA Rules fixed, too, that the throw-in had to be thrown at right angles.
1866 (FA) The player performing the throw-in must not touch the ball again until it was touched by another player.
1867 (Sheffield FC) Throw-in in right angle.
1868 (Sheffield FA) Kick-in. The other players must be at least 6 yd away until the ball was back in play.
1871 (FA) While throw-in in the other players must be at least 6 yd away until the ball was back in play.
1873 (FA) The throw-in is given to the opponent of the team that played the ball into the touch (Maidenhead FC, Nottingham Forest FC).
1877 (FA) Choice between throw-in or kick-in (Wanderers FC). A throw-in must not be performed in right angles (Clydesdale FC).
1886 (IFAB) Only throw-in. It must be performed as follows: 1) facing the field, 2) holding ball over head, 3) throws it with both hands and 4) in a free direction, but on the field. In the case of an incorrect throw-in, the opposing team gets a throw-in. If the opponent of an infringement of the law, the throw-in will be repeated.
1889 (IFAB) Removal that the throwing player must hold the ball before the throw.
1895 (IFAB) Supplement that the throwing player must be on the line (FA).
1897 (IFAB) Supplement to the emphasis on repeated contact.
1925 (IFAB) Addition that the throwing player must stand with both feet outside the touch line.
1937 (IFAB) Addition, that the throwing player can also stand on the touch line during the performance (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Supplement that if the throwing player repeatedly touches the ball, the game is restarted with a free kick from the place where the infringement occurred, unless the offence is committed by a player in his opponents’ goal-area, in which case the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal-area in which the offence occurred. If the throw-in is incorrectly performed, the game continues with a throw-in by the opponent. If the throw-in player repeatedly touches the ball, the game is restarted with an IDFK for the opponent. The ball shall be in play immediately it is thrown. A goal cannot be scored directly from a throw-in.
1965 (IFAB) Supplement that the throw-in player must begin the throw-in action behind the head. The ball is in play when it enters the field of play.
1978 (IFAB) It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred.
1987 (IFAB) Addition that if a throw-in is executed from a point other than where the ball went out, the throw-in was improperly performed. Supplement that when taking a free kick after an infringement, the general conditions for free kicks from Law 13 apply.
1997 (IFAB) Supplement to the infringements and their restart if the goalkeeper takes the throw-in.
2005 (IFAB) Addition: The distance is measured from the point where the ball went out.
2008 (IFAB) Change: The fact that a yellow card is also shown for a caution is deleted. The metric measure of the distance is rounded up to 2 m.
2016 (IFAB) The restart of the play is added to the text when the ball goes directly into the own or opponent’s goal.

Law 16: The Goal Kick

Note: Until the FA Rules, there is no distinction between (early forms of the) goal kick and corner kick. The same laws always apply for the restart of the game as soon as the ball is behind the goal – outside the goalposts. The differentiation between goal kick and corner kick nowadays was introduced 1867/1872.

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1857 (Eton Field Game) After the ball is behind the goal, the game will be restarted with a bully opposite the point where the ball had gone out.
1858 (Sheffield FC) Goal kick from a point 25 yd behind the goal.
1858 (Harrow Football) When the ball is behind the goal it must be kicked directly on the field. There, it must be first touched be the attacking team before the defending team is allowed to touch it.
1862 (Blackheath FC) When the ball is behind the goal the game restart with a place kick from the goal line by the team that owned the goal.
1862 (The Simplest Game) When the ball is behind the goal the game restart with a place kick from the goal line by the team that owned the goal.
1863 (Shrewsbury School) When the ball is behind the goal the game restart with a place kick by the opposing team (place not specified), either as an unhindered kick or as a “hoist” (nowadays: a volley).
1863 (Cambridge University) When the ball is behind the goal the game restart with a place kick 25 yd behind the goal. Which team perform the kick is not mentioned.
1863 (FA) When the ball is behind the goal, it is crucial which team touched it first. If it was behind his own goal, there was a kick from the goalpost, at the point where the ball crosses the goal line. Here it is also noted that an offside position is not possible at the kick and it is an indirect free kick.
1867 (Sheffield FA) In the Sheffield FA Rules there’s nothing about goal kick.
1867 (FA) When a player kicks the ball behind the opposite goal, the goal owning team get’s a goal kick from that goalpost which was nearer to the point, where the ball went behind the goal.
1902 (IFAB) Change: The goal kick is no longer performed within 6 yd by the nearest goal-posts, but from the nearest place where the ball left the field (FA).
1914 (IFAB) Change of the distance for opponents from six to ten yd (FA).
1936 (IFAB) The goalkeeper may no longer pick up the ball from a goal kick with his hands (SFA)
1938 (IFAB) Change: The goal-kick is performed within that half of the goal area nearest the point where the ball left the field of play. The ball must leave the penalty area to be in play. Change of the text, which is reduced to the fact that as with an IDFK no goal may be scored directly from a goal kick. If the ball is touched repeatedly by the performer, the game is stopped and restarted by an IDFK. If the ball is not kicked out of the penalty area at the goal kick, the kick is retaken. The ball must not be played directly into the goalkeeper’s hands at the goal kick.
1948 (IFAB) Modification that the distance is not always 10 yd, but that the opponents must be outside the penalty area whilst the kick its taken (FA).
1978 (IFAB) It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred (FA).
1980 (IFAB) Specification that opponents must be outside the penalty area until the ball is in play (FIFA).
1987 (IFAB) Supplement that when performing the restart by an IDFK the general conditions for free kicks as stated in Law 13 apply (FA).
1992 (IFAB) Change: The goal kick must be performed from any point within the goal area (FIFA).
1997 (IFAB) Change: Now a goal can be scored directly from a goal kick. The ball is in play as soon as it is behind the penalty area.
2016 (IFAB) It is added in the text that the ball must be stationary during performance.
2019 (IFAB) From now on, the ball is already in play when it has been kicked and clearly moves.

Law 17: The Corner Kick

Note: Until the FA Rules, there is no distinction between (early forms of the) goal kick and corner kick. The same laws always apply for the restart of the game as soon as the ball is behind the goal – outside the goalposts. The differentiation between goal kick and corner kick nowadays was introduced 1867/1872.

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1857 (Eton Field Game) After the ball has crossed the goal line, the game is restarted with a bully opposite the point where the ball had gone out.
1858 (Sheffield FC) Goal kick from a point 25 yd behind the goal.
1858 (Harrow Football) When the ball has crossed the goal line, it must be kicked directly on the field. There, it must be first touched be the attacking team before the defending team is allowed to touch it.
1862 (Blackheath FC) When the ball is behind the goal line, the game restarts with a place kick from the goal line by the team that owned the goal.
1862 (The Simplest Game) When the ball is behind the goal line, the game restarts with a place kick from the goal line by the team that owned the goal.
1863 (Shrewsbury School) When the ball is behind the goal the game restarts with a place kick by the opposing team (place not specified), either as an unhindered kick or as a “hoist” (nowadays: a volley).
1863 (Cambridge University) When the ball is behind the goal line, the game restarts with a place kick 25 yd behind the goal. Which team performs the kick is not mentioned.
1863 (FA) When the ball is behind the goal line, it was crucial which team touches it first. If it is behind the opposite goal, there is a kick from the point of touch as a free kick to the field.
1866 (FA) Added: During a free kick from behind the goal, the team that owns the goal had to remain behind the goal until the ball is kicked.
1868 (Sheffield FA) Corner kick from that corner which is nearer to the point where the ball went behind the goal line. From 1868 to 1871 the corner kick was an indirect free kick, from 1871 to 1877 a direct free kick.
1872 (FA) Corner kick as an indirect free kick from that corner which is nearer to the point where the ball went behind the goal line. All players must be at least 6 yd away from the ball until the ball is kicked.
1874 (FA) Added: The ball is kicked from a quarter circle around the corner flag, so that the flag no longer disturbs. The quarter circle has a radius of 1 yd (Maidenhead FC). From 1877 this quarter circle was also marked on the field.
1883 (FA) Added: When a corner kick is performed, no offside is possible.
1888 (IFAB) The passage is changed so that the distance only applies to the opposing players.
1924 (IFAB) Change: A goal can be scored directly with a corner kick.
1938 (IFAB) Specification: It does not matter whether the ball crosses the goal line on the ground or in the air, once the ball has last touched a player of the defending team there is a corner kick. For this, the ball must be kicked inside the quarter circle of the corner closer to the point where the ball went out. The corner flag may not be removed for this purpose. Increase the distance of the opponent’s players from 6 yd to 10 yd until the ball is in play. Touching the ball repeatedly by the player taking the kick is not allowed. For an offence [= repeated ball contact] an IDFK is awarded.
1960 (IFAB) The corner flag must not be removed or moved for the corner joint to perform.
1973 (IFAB) For any other offence against this law other than repeated touching of the ball, the corner kick is repeated.
1978 (IFAB) It is added that – when a player commits an infringement in his opponent’s goal area – the free-kick shall be taken from a point anywhere within that half of the goal area nearest to where the offence occurred.
1987 (IFAB) Supplement that when taking a free kick after an infringement, the general conditions for free kicks from Law 13 apply.
1997 (IFAB) It is added to the passage that only one goal can be scored into the opponent’s goal with a corner kick. [This passage can be found in law 13 as early as 1931.] Addition: A DFK is awarded for a handball.
2008 (IFAB) The ball is already in play when it is kicked and moves, not after 68 cm.
2016 (IFAB) It is added in the text that if the ball directly enters the kicker’s goal a corner kick is awarded to the opponents.

References

References
1 Cf. Brown, Paul: Please do not strain the ropes – a football programme from 1875. In: Goalpost. URL: http://www.goalpostbooks.co.uk/please-do-not-strain-the-ropes/.
2 A rubber-like fabric.
3 Cf. Manganese, J. A.: Prologue. In: J. A. Manganese (Hg): Sport in Europe. Politics, Class, Gender. Preston 1999. p. iv-viii, here p. vii.
4 Brown, Paul: How referees are tricked – a Victorian football football[!] ref reveals all. In: Goalpost. URL: www.goalpost.co.uk/how-referees-are-tricked (Last accessed: 30.06.2017. On 22th September 2018 not available any more.).